|Your link to the past since February 1996! Search for your ancestors in free Ships' Passenger lists, Naturalization Records, Palatine Genealogy, Canadian Genealogy, American Genealogy, Native American Genealogy, Huguenots, Mennonites, Almshouse Records, Orphan Records, church records, military muster rolls, census records, land records and more. marks FREE genealogy records.|
Olive Tree Genealogy website chosen by Family Tree Magazine for 2017
|| Check out the Genealogy Books written by Olive Tree Genealogy!
Organize Your Genealogy in Evernote in 10 Easy Steps is a must have!
See the list of Ten People All Genealogists Should Follow On Twitter
Death Finds a Way: A Janie Riley Mystery by Lorine McGinnis Schulze
Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and the CreateSpace eStore
|The Peer Family in North America in 6 Volumes are available for sale!|
Genealogy Mystery Book!
Death Finds a Way: A Janie Riley Mystery
by Lorine McGinnis Schulze
Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca
Genealogy NewsletterJOIN Free Olive Tree Genealogy Newsletter. Be the first to know of genealogy events. Find out when new genealogy databases are put online. Get tips for finding your elusive brick-wall ancestor
Share With OthersShare with other genealogists! Tweet this page! Tweet
Follow OliveTreeGenealogyFollow Olive Tree Genealogy on Google+
Search Olive Tree Genealogy Family of Websites
New Netherland, New York Genealogy
Life in 16th and 17th Century Amsterdam Holland: Bakers
Bakers in Amsterdam© Cor Snabel
Bread is not only a universal food, but it was eaten at least 2000 years ago. Didn't Abraham eat bread and wasn't Samson convicted to grind the corn for his enemies?
Regulations concerning the manufacturing of bread in Amsterdam are at least 500 years old, but are mostly about the weight, price and quality. And of course the regulations of the St. Hubertus guild, but those were mostly about how the oven had to be placed and how to prevent fire. None of those strict regulations are about hygiene. The fact that the dough is kneaded with the hands is even today completely acceptable, although machines took over that job, But we can hardly believe, that the baker did the kneading with his feet, even till in the 19th century. I have a picture of a 350 years old memorial stone showing a baker kneading the dough with his feet. On the other hand, what's strange about it, just think about how the grapes for wine were processed.
The type of oven, which was used for baking bread, hardly changed throughout the centuries. The oven was made of heat-resistant stone and was heated with wood, branches, peat or sawdust. After heating the oven for some time, the fire was removed and the oven was washed. The stone walls, floor and ceiling of the oven had accumulated the heat and the bread was inserted. After a few times the oven was cooled down a little and the remaining heat was used for other articles, which needed lower temperatures.
This oven was also the reason, why a bakery was often on one particular place for centuries. The shop and the living space were practically built around the oven and its chimney, so the building could hardly be used for any other purpose.
The rye bread was the main food for the people, that's why the price and quality of the rye bread were strictly regulated, but according to the bakers the price was to low. In order to get it their way, they made the bread smaller, but the authorities appointed official controllers, who had to measure and weigh the bread in the shops. It is obvious that these officials were far from popular. The bakers hired some men and women, who posted at the homes of the controllers and the moment he left his house, all bakers on his route were warned, so they could hide their "illegal" bread.
But beside the rye bread the bakers were able to make very delicious fine bread in various kinds of quality and taste. The regulation concerning white bread and other luxurious kinds of bread were not as strict as for rye bread. The bread baker was not allowed to make biscuit, pie or pastry, since 1497 the guild had been split up and each delicacy had its own guild.
All rights reserved
Copyright © 1996-present
Contact Lorine at