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Death Finds a Way: A Janie Riley Mystery by Lorine McGinnis Schulze

Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and the CreateSpace eStore
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Death Finds a Way: A Janie Riley Mystery
by Lorine McGinnis Schulze

Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca

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New Netherland, New York Genealogy

New Netherland Settlers Books now available!:

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500 voyages to and from New Netherland (New York)
Cemetery Records (Cemetery, Obits)
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New Netherland History
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Translation of words in Church records
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Dutch Names & Nicknames
Glossary of Dutch Words
Ancient Dutch Occupations
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17th Century Ancestor Registry
Dutch & English translations for Occupations
Life in 17th Century Amsterdam
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[ Mailing Lists] [Societies & Journals] [Dictionary & Definitions] [Olive Tree Library] [Help] [Links]

MARINE MUSEUM

The following series was translated from the original Dutch by Willem Rabbelier and Cor Snabel of the Netherlands. It is published with their permission on The Olive Tree Genealogy pages.

THE WIC (West Indies Company)

The WIC, West Indies Company (West-Indische Compagnie) was a trading company, shaped after the example of the Dutch VOC, East Indies Company, which started in 1602, with the goal to trade and found colonies in the Atlantic area outside of Europe. They received their charter from the States General, that reserved the 'right on shipping and trade' to this company. The WIC obtained the trading monopoly on the entire coast from the Americas, to Cape Magelhaes, and the African coast between the tropic of Cancer and the Cape of Good Hope, next to the control over the colonies. It is not far from reality though to mention that privateering was another main goal: as a matter of fact, in the first decades, the WIC was a military force, ‘instrument par excellence’ for the Dutch States-General in their struggle with Spain and Portugal. (The side effect of this was, that the WIC tended to base their organization financially a little too much on the flow of money resulting from privateering).

The company was divided in five Kamers (Chambers): Amsterdam, Zeeland, Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Land (Groningen). The Chambers were under the general government of the so called Heren XIX (Heren = litt. Gentlemen; lords, masters, XIX=19). The Heren XIX consisted of 8 representatives from Amsterdam, 5 from Zeeland and 2 from Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Lande each; the States General however had one important representative in this organization. Generally speaking we may assume that especially the Amsterdam Chamber was the most influential one with her 20 bewindvoerders; Kiliaen van Rensselaer was one of them.

(Maze by the way stands for the area north of Amsterdam, while Noorderkwartier stands for the northern part of Holland, with main harbors as Hoorn, Enkhuizen and Medemblik).

Due to miscalculations the WIC never came up to the high, profitable level of the Dutch VOC: especially the structure of the WIC, the commercial failure of the Dutch 'Brazil adventure’ (the "Nieuw Holland' colony from 1630-1654) and the conflicting interests of the Amsterdam shareholders weakened the Company: already in 1638 the WIC had to let go the trade-monopoly on Brazil and the Caribbean. Conquest and defense costs and shareholders consumed the lion’s share of the WIC money.

From the beginning the WIC and the States General were focussed on trade and quick profits: as for New Netherland, they did not fall in with the 'colonization' ideas from men like Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Samuel Godijn and Johannes de Laet from the Amsterdam Chamber. The main reason that small groups of colonists were sent to New Netherland actually was a pragmatic one -- in order to protect and legitimate Dutch territorial claim on the area only!

When the peace-treaty at Muenster was signed in 1648, which made an end to the war between Spain and the Republic and the Thirty Year War, the WIC quickly declined, until she was liquidated finally in 1674. But before that happened the activities already were narrowed down to slave, gold, sugar and ammunition trade mainly; a system in which Curacao played a main role. A new WIC was launched shortly after in 1675, but this time smaller, with less financial means and less bewindvoerders (directors, managers): only ten, this time. Until 1743 this WIC maintained part of the original monopolies: the trading of African slaves and products such as gold. After that the WIC was engaged solely in the administration of the remaining African and American oversea territories and fortresses until she was closed down in 1791 forever.

Sources:

EEN ZEGENRIJK GEWEST
Nieuw-Nederland in de zeventiende eeuw.
Jaap Jacobs
Uitgeverij Prometheus/Bert Bakker Amsterdam, 1999
ISBN 90 5333 803 9

GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE LAGE LANDEN IN JAARTALLEN
Dr. H.P.H.Jansen
Uitgev. Spectrum, Utrecht/Antwerpen, 1971
ISBN 90 274 0492 5

DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE W.I.C.
Henk den Heijer
Uitgeverij Walburg Pers Zutphen 1994
ISBN 90 601 1912 6

Choose from the Marine Museum Series
Introduction to Marine Museum Series
List of all ships sailing from Netherlands to the New World 1609 - 1674
List of all ships sailing from the New World to the Netherlands 1609 - 1674
#1: Dutch First Presence in the Atlantic Area
#2: The Isle of Texel
#3: The West Indies Company/West-Indische Compagnie (WIC)
#4: The Crossing: Routes and Duration
#5: Colonist Arrivals in the New World Between 1624-1640
#6: Colonist Arrivals in the New World Between 1641-1657
#7: Colonist Arrivals in the New World Between 1658-1660
#8: Colonist Arrivals in the New World Between 1661-1664
#9: Privateering Under W.I.C. Command
#10: Food on Board Ship
#11: Harbour Procedures in New Amsterdam


 
 

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