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Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and the CreateSpace eStore
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New Netherland, New York Genealogy
The company was divided in five Kamers (Chambers): Amsterdam, Zeeland, Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Land (Groningen). The Chambers were under the general government of the so called Heren XIX (Heren = litt. Gentlemen; lords, masters, XIX=19). The Heren XIX consisted of 8 representatives from Amsterdam, 5 from Zeeland and 2 from Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Lande each; the States General however had one important representative in this organization. Generally speaking we may assume that especially the Amsterdam Chamber was the most influential one with her 20 bewindvoerders; Kiliaen van Rensselaer was one of them.
(Maze by the way stands for the area north of Amsterdam, while Noorderkwartier stands for the northern part of Holland, with main harbors as Hoorn, Enkhuizen and Medemblik).
Due to miscalculations the WIC never came up to the high, profitable level of the Dutch VOC: especially the structure of the WIC, the commercial failure of the Dutch 'Brazil adventure’ (the "Nieuw Holland' colony from 1630-1654) and the conflicting interests of the Amsterdam shareholders weakened the Company: already in 1638 the WIC had to let go the trade-monopoly on Brazil and the Caribbean. Conquest and defense costs and shareholders consumed the lion’s share of the WIC money.
From the beginning the WIC and the States General were focussed on trade and quick profits: as for New Netherland, they did not fall in with the 'colonization' ideas from men like Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Samuel Godijn and Johannes de Laet from the Amsterdam Chamber. The main reason that small groups of colonists were sent to New Netherland actually was a pragmatic one -- in order to protect and legitimate Dutch territorial claim on the area only!
When the peace-treaty at Muenster was signed in 1648, which made an end to the war between Spain and the Republic and the Thirty Year War, the WIC quickly declined, until she was liquidated finally in 1674. But before that happened the activities already were narrowed down to slave, gold, sugar and ammunition trade mainly; a system in which Curacao played a main role. A new WIC was launched shortly after in 1675, but this time smaller, with less financial means and less bewindvoerders (directors, managers): only ten, this time. Until 1743 this WIC maintained part of the original monopolies: the trading of African slaves and products such as gold. After that the WIC was engaged solely in the administration of the remaining African and American oversea territories and fortresses until she was closed down in 1791 forever.
EEN ZEGENRIJK GEWEST
GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE LAGE LANDEN IN JAARTALLEN DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE W.I.C.
EEN ZEGENRIJK GEWEST
GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE LAGE LANDEN IN JAARTALLEN
DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE W.I.C.
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