Death Finds a Way: A Janie Riley Mystery
by Lorine McGinnis Schulze
Janie Riley is an avid genealogist with a habit of stumbling on to dead bodies. She and her husband head to Salt Lake City Utah to research Janie's elusive 4th great-grandmother. But her search into the past leads her to a dark secret. Can she solve the mysteries of the past and the present before disaster strikes? Available now on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca
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New Netherland, New York Genealogy
Obsolete Occupations of the Netherlands
© Cor Snabel
In the 13th and 14th century only a few streets in
Amsterdam were paved, only in the second half of the 15th
century we could find a lot of streets paved with cobbles.
The mainstreets were the first and of course those where the
yearly procession passed. The laying and maintenance were
paid by the owners of the houses, which were situated at
that street. Usually the material used was granite- or
basalt, which were transported by boat and unloaded by hand.
Even the black granite pavement suffered a lot from the
heavy traffic, like the large coaches or the brewer-waggons.
Only in pedestrian areas bricks were used, or for a short
period wood, which could become very slippery and it would
rot in no time.
The first street in New Amsterdam to be paved by the
authorities was Brewer’s Street (now Stone Street, between
Whitehall Street and Broad Street), which was paid for
grudgingly by those who had petioned for this improvement in
1655. A paved street in New Amsterdam was like many a one
still to be seen in old European towns, where the gutter is
a broad gully in the middle of the street, which must be
crossed by stepping-stones when rain turned the throughfare
into a brawling stream. We may gain a clear idea of a model
street of the day (1670) from the “Orders and Instructions
for Mr. Johannes de Peister, Isaacq Greveraet, Coeuraet te
Eyck and Hendrick Willemsen Backer, Overseers appointed for
the Laying out and Paveing of the Streets”: 1st. The sd.
Overseers are hereby required to order that the streets,
which are to be paved be laid as level and even as possible
may be, according to the Convenience of the Streets. 2nd.
That the passage be raised about one foot higher than the
middle of the street to the end, the water may take its
course from the passages towards the middle of the streets
aforesaid. 3rd. And in case the neighbours are inclined to
wards the paveing of the whole streets, they have liberty so
to do, provided that all the neighbours do jointly agree
about the same.
Sidewalks first appeared in Paris in 1850, Amsterdam
followed this trend in 1855. A city without sidewalks must
look very different; some villages in the Netherlands still
have streets without sidewalks.
>Choose from the following ancient occupations
Seat Caretaker |
Ship Shanghai |