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Choose from the following for definitions and terms related to these areas of interest
Huguenots & Walloons ~ Loyalist ~ Mennonite ~ Miscellaneous ~ Mohawk ~ New Netherland ~ Palatine

New Netherland

Aum: An old Dutch and German unit of liquid capacity (as for wine) varying from 36 to 42 gallons.
Beverywcyk: present-day Albany NY
burgher: a town resident with rights and privileges of the community, the most important being the right to trade
burgher guard: town or city militia
chirurgeon: a surgeon or physician who trained through apprenticeship
domine: minister
duffel: woolen blanket used in trade with native tribes
Esopus: present-day Kingston NY
flat: lowland on a river
Florin: a British coin, originally of silver, worth two shillings. The term can also the Dutch coin called a gulden
Fuyck: community that became Beverwyck then Albany NY
getuygen: witnesses or sponsors at christenings, best man at wedding
Guilder: Abbreviation:gl. Dutch coin (now called a gulden) used in 17th century Dutch colonies of the New World. Six guilders equalled one English pound sterling
Kil: Dutch word meaning stream or brook
kinderen: children
Noorman: Norwegian, norseman>
morgen: Dutch unit for an area of land equal to two acres
ouders: parents
Patronymic: System of identification of an individual using the father's first name and the predominant system used by the Dutch in the New World. The patronymic ending varies greatly, ranging from -sz, -szen, -sen, -se, all meaning "child of". "x" or "dr." was often used to represent a daughter, as in Aefie Harmensx or Aefie Harmensdr. meaning Aefie the daughter of Harmen. A man who was the son of a man named Cornelis might use the patronymic Cornelisz, Corneliszen, Cornelisen, or Cornelise. See an explanation of patronymics at Dutch naming systems
Patroon: A title used for individuals authorized to establish plantations or colonies in Dutch New Netherlands. The patroon system of ownership was equivalent to a landowner being a feudal lord over his tenants. Also means employer.
schepel: 76.4% of a bushel. Wheat was measured in schepels and was used as exchange medium
schepen: Dutch magistrate. The schepenen (plural) was in charge of administrative, legislative and judicial matters. Can also mean Alderman used in the south of Holland, or Flanders
schout: Dutch court official who investigated crimes and made arrests. Sheriff
seawan: also called wampum. A form of coinage in New Netherland
stuyver: Dutch coin, being 1/12 of a guilder, now a coin worth 5 cents
wampum: See seawan. Originally wampum referred to shell strings which were used as tokens of leadership or nobility in the Iroquois Confederacy.
weesmeester: orphan master appointed by the courts to administer the inheritance of minors
Wiltwyck: present-day Kingston, New York. Also called Esopus prior to 1660.
wyck: district


Loyalist: Those men who sided with the British during the American Revolution and who settled in Ontario, New Brunswick or Nova Scotia.
UEL: United Empire Loyalist
UE: Unity of the Empire
OC: Order in Council [On 9 November 1789 at Quebec, it was ordered that the Land Boards provide for the sons of Loyalists, as soon as they reached the age of 21, and to daughters at age 21 or at marriage by providing to each a Lot of 200 acres]
Hessian: German troops used by the British in the Revolutionary War.


Mennonite: The Mennonites were a Protestant sect formed in 1525 who were followers of Menno Simons, which arose from Swiss Anabaptists. They migrated to America by way of Alsace, England and Russia. They settled primarily in Kansas, Pennsylvania and Minnesota.
Swiss Brethren: Same as Mennonite
Amish: conservative division of the Mennonite Church

Huguenot & Walloon

Huguenot: French Protestants who fled from religious persecution. They first went to Prussia, the German Palatinate and then came to America. Those in the French West Indies escaped to the southeastern coast of America. Others went to England and Ireland.
Walloon: Walloons are from southern Belgium. The language of the Walloons is a dialect of French. Cornelis May of Flanders, Holland and about 30 to 40 families came to America in 1624 and established Fort Orange. This town is now known as Albany, NY.


Palatines: In 1688, Louis XIV of France began persecuting German Protestants from the west bank of the Rhine River. Queen Anne of England helped a group to come to America in 1708. More than 2000 arrived in New York in 1710 and settled along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers.


Mohawk: The Mohawk (Kanien'kehaka) were one of the tribes within the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy
Sachem: Chief, leader of tribe
Castle: Fortified village


Moravian: The United Brethren is a Protestant group formed in Bohemia about 1415 which spread to Poland, Prussia, Germany and England.
Quaker: The Society of Friends was formed in England in 1648. Early restrictions brought them to New Jersey in 1675 and some 230 English Quakers founded Burlington, NJ in 1678. William Penn was granted the territory of Pennsylvania in 1681 and within two years there were about 3000 Quakers living there.
Scots-Irish: The descendants of the Presbyterian Scots who had been placed in the northern counties of Ireland by British rulers in the early part of the 17th Century. Most came to America from 1718 until the Revolution. They settled first in PA, then moved south and then westward to the frontier.


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